Sunday, March 22, 2020
Getting Ready to Read Into the Wild is a nonfiction, full-length text by Jon Krakauer. Published in 1996, it is based on an article Krakauer wrote in Outside Magazine about Christopher McCandless, a young college graduate who went off to Alaska and died in the woods. Because KrakauerÃ¢â¬â¢s article drew a huge amount of mail to the magazine, he decided to write a book about this interesting character. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s a young, idealistic guy who forms a life philosophy based on his experience and his reading in college. His idealism, ironically, leads to his death by starvation. He makes choices that seem foolish as we look at them now. But McCandless genuinely loved the outdoors and wanted to live in the world without all the trappings of money and his middle-class upbringing. Into the Wild is, in a way, a mystery story. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re unsure as to why he rejects his family, why heÃ¢â¬â¢s so angry with them, and why he chooses to head for Alaska. We will write a custom essay sample on Into the Wild or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Quickwrite: * Think about your experience hiking, backpacking, and/or existing in the wild. What are the benefits of any one of these activities? or * Think about some alternative plans you might have to beginning college immediately after high school. What might you do? Why would you do it, and for how long could you see yourself doing that activity? or * Think about an experience you have had when you were alone and made some misjudgments that could have led to disaster but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t (it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be in the outdoors). What miscalculations did you make and how did you avert disaster? Activity 2: Introducing Key Concepts We know about characters from their actions, their thoughts, what they say, heir appearance, and what others say about them. This book explores a character, Chris McCandless, and the actions he takes. Before reading about him, complete this pre-reading activity. Read the scenarios below and use specific words to describe the character in the scenario. In groups, you will compare your lists, then turn in your finalized list of descriptive words to your teacher. Mary was from the Valley. She used the word Ã¢â¬Å"likeÃ¢â¬ in front of most of her adjectives when she spoke and talked quite a bit. On her 16th birthday she expected to get a car. It was a given. Her friends thought she would get a pink Maserati, but she was sure her parents would buy her the candy-apple red Alfa Romeo. The day of her birthday came, and as she peered out her bedroom window, she noticed a new car in the driveway, but it was yellowÃ¢â¬âsurely not hers. She thought it may have been the new cleaning womanÃ¢â¬â¢s. She did not see any other car in the long driveway. She ran down to get a closer look. It was a new canary-colored convertible Volkswagen bug. On the front driverÃ¢â¬â¢s-side seat was a birthday note to her. She burst into tears and ran into the house. What does this mean? Are all biographers impartial? What might we expect from Krakauer? * In the last paragraph, Krakauer introduces the complexity of Chris McCandless. Keep in mind the following four questions as you read the text: 1 Should we admire McCandless for his courage and noble ideas? 2 Was he a reckless idiot? 3 Was he crazy? 4 Was he an arrogant and stupid narcissist? Activity 4: Making Predictions and Ask Questions (Extra Credit) * Find an issue of Outside Magazine and write a one-page report describing the magazine, its audience, the kinds of articles it publishes, and so forth. Then ask yourself these questions: * Why do you think Krakauer wrote this particular book? * Who do you think is the intended audience for this book? Note that the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s roots can be found in a long article about McCandless in Outside Magazine. Activity 6: First Reading Quickwrites (5 minutes) After you finish each chapter, write down what you think the chapterÃ¢â¬â¢s main focus is and what the author is trying to accomplish in that chapter. Here are some other questions to ask yourself: Ã · What are the issues the author is discussing? (this is basically a summary). What does the author want us to believe? this is the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose) Because you will be given directed tasks as you read Into the Wild, you will need to flip back and forth in this guide. For example, you might read chapters 1 and 2, practice a reading strategy, skip to the section on vocabulary for those chapters, skip on to the section that gives you strategies for rereading, and so forth. Reading Chapters 1 and 2: The Beginning and the End Note the epigraphs that begin each of these chapters. One is by a friend of Chris McCandless and the other is by McCandless, followed by a quotation from White Fang, by Jack London. In a notebook, keep track of the literary quotations that Krakauer uses in his epigraphs. Make note of all the maps that begin the text. * What is your assessment of Chris McCandless so far? Keep notes as you read, ask questions of the text, and write down your reactions. Reading Chapter 3: Home Jot down your thoughts on the following questions: * What was Westerberg like? What kind of character did he have? * What was McCandless like? What kind of character did he have? Would you have liked to know him? Reading Chapters 4Ã¢â¬â7: The Journey Study the map that begins Chapter 4 and refer to it as you follow McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s journey. Jot down answers to the following as you read these chapters: * In your notebook, list the people McCandless met along the way. * What was it about McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s personality that made an impression on people? * Note AlexÃ¢â¬â¢s journal. Why do you think he avoided using the first person when he talked about himself? (He did not use Ã¢â¬Å"I. Ã¢â¬ ) * What is the purpose of Chapter 4? * Characterize Ronald Franz. What kind of a human being was he? Did he have your sympathy? Why or why not? * What more did you learn about AlexÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with his father? Do you think his anger is justified? Why or why not? Reading Chapters 8Ã¢â¬â10: The Outcasts * What is the function of these chapters? What is their relationship to the rest of the text? * Why did Krakauer interrupt the McCandless story with Chapters 8 and 9? * Were you surprised that McCandless left trails so that the authorities could find out who he was? * WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s in a name? Does it matter that we have the name we were given by our parents? How do names matter? Does your name fit you? If not, what name would you choose? Why? Reading Chapters 11Ã¢â¬â13: Family History These three key chapters give background information that will help you piece together the mystery of McCandless. Chapter 11 fills in his personal past; Chapter 12 fills in his family past; and Chapter 13 chronicles McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s familyÃ¢â¬â¢s grief. Jot down the surprises (if any) that you encountered as you read. * What was McCandless like as a child and as a teen? What was he like as an adult? Were there indications throughout his life as to the kind of person he would become? * Do you think you are essentially the same person you were as a child? How have you changed? Reading Chapters 14 and 15: Krakauer Interjects * Why does Krakauer talk about himself in these two chapters? Do you like his interjections? What is your reaction to his description of his own climbing experience? * How is KrakauerÃ¢â¬â¢s life related to McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s? * John Menlove Edwards said that climbing is a Ã¢â¬Å"psycho-neurotic tendency. Ã¢â¬ Do you think that is so? Always? * Do you think that Edwards defines McCandless? How is he psycho-neurotic? Reading Chapters 16Ã¢â¬â18: Into the Alaskan Wild Go back to the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s notes and jot down your thoughts on the questions Krakauer asks at that point: * Was McCandless crazy? * Was he just ignorant? * Did he have a death wish? * Investigate further the wild sweet peas and wild potatoes McCandless ate. Were they toxic? Reading the Epilogue: Grief * What was your initial sense of McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s mental condition compared to what you think now? Have you changed your mind? * What was your reaction to his parents as they visited the bus? Activity 7: Looking Closely at Language Because this reading is a full-length book, there are many new words to learn. You learn most of the words you know from hearing them or reading them. Here are some clues to help you learn new words as you are reading. 1 Notice what comes before and after the word for clues as well as the parts of the word itself you may already know. Link your prior knowledge with what you are readingÃ¢â¬âmake connections to the word or subject. 3 Make predictions about the wordÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning. 4 Use references to find more about the word. 5 Make connections to a key concept and, if relevant, place the new word and its meaning in your concept dictionary. Activity 8: Rereading the Text Our first reading of a book gives us the story line, the major conflicts, and a sense of what the author intends. The second (or third) reading provides richer analyses and a deeper understanding of the text. In the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s notes, Krakauer provides a guide to our readingÃ¢â¬âespecially to our subsequent reading of Into the Wild. As you look at the text again, go back to the four questions he asks in his Ã¢â¬Å"notes. Ã¢â¬ 1 Was McCandless admirable for his courage and noble ideas? 2 Was he a reckless idiot? 3 Was he crazy? 4 Was he a narcissist who perished out of arrogance and stupidityÃ¢â¬âand was he undeserving of the considerable media attention he received? Make marginal notes as you reread the text. When you respond to the chapter questions, cite the text, if necessary, where you find evidence for your judgments. Chapters 1 and 2 Each chapter begins with a short epigraph (a quotation that is relevant to that chapter). Now that you have a better sense of Chris McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s story, why do you think these epigraphs are relevant to these chapters? Chapter 3 * How would you characterize McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s relationships with other people: his parents, his sister, Westerberg? * What did his friends make of his secretive life? Chapters 4Ã¢â¬â7 As you read, see if you can find evidence of AlexÃ¢â¬â¢s preparation for Alaska: Read ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"On the Duty of Civil DisobedienceÃ¢â¬ and consider how Alex might have incorporated ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s advice into his life philosophy. Read some of Jack LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s work that we know influenced Alex: The Call of the Wild, White Fang, Ã¢â¬Å"To Build a Fire,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"An OdysseÃ Consider McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s family history. * Does that change your view of him? * Characterize each of McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s family members. What are their strengths and weaknesses? * Was McCandless reasonable in his reaction to his parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ past? Should he have forgiven them? * How do you think the information about his parents affected McCandless? * Does his anger at them explain something about McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s choices in life? * Chapter 12 ends with McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s mother talking about a dream (nightmare? ) that she had. Have you ever had such a thing happen to you? Should we take dreams such as these seriously. Into the Wild free essay sample In the world of journalism, there is a code of ethics known as journalistic integrity, which when followed, ensures that the work done by journalists meets certain standards. Journalistic integrity includes fair, unbiased material with truth and accuracy. This is a tough job, and journalists sometimes let their own experiences and opinions interfere with journalistic integrity. A very obvious example of this is Jon KrakauerÃ¢â¬â¢s account of the odyssey of Chris McCandless: Into the Wild. He shows a lack of objectivity, along with a lack of impartiality, based off of his obsession with the American Spirit. We will write a custom essay sample on Into the Wild or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is very easy to notice this lack of objectivity and impartiality throughout the book. Throughout Into the Wild, Krakauer uses examples of the Ã¢â¬Å"American Spirit,Ã¢â¬ and applies it to both his life and Chris McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s. When he was writing the book, Krakauer felt a connection to Chris because of their similarities, including the American Spirit. This connection brought a lot of criticism to Krakauer, because it made it hard for him to say anything negative about Chris. There are several examples of KrakauerÃ¢â¬â¢s American Spirit, which was overall shown through his thrill for adventure. Krakauer shows that in his youth he Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ devoted most of my waking hours to fantasizing about, and then undertaking, ascents of remote mountains in AlaskaÃ¢â¬ (Krakauer 134). What he means here is that he always had a hunger for climbing. He also shows off his thrill for adventure here: Ã¢â¬Å"How would it feel, I wondered, to be balanced on that bladelike summit ridge, worrying over the storm clouds building in the distanceÃ¢â¬ (Krakauer 133). This quote really stands out, as he is attracted to what most people fear. Like many people, he Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦was stirred by the dark mystery of mortalityÃ¢â¬ (Krakauer 155). In other words, he was interested in and embraced the fact that at some point his life would end, and he had no idea when. KrakauerÃ¢â¬â¢s parents had a different version of the American Spirit. Krakauer states that he and his siblings Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦were hectored to excel in every class, to win medals in science fairs, to be chosen princess of the prom, to win election to student governmentÃ¢â¬ (Krakauer 148). As you can see here, his parents had very different ideas for KrakauerÃ¢â¬â¢s life than he did. Throughout the book, Krakauer seems to glorify most of McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, even a lot of the illogical ones. He is so impartial because in lot of ways he sees himself in Chris, so he only wanted to focus on the smart and brave things that he did. You can tell that Krakauer sees himself in McCandless from the way he compares himself to him; at one point he states that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Like McCandless, figures of male authority aroused in me a confusing medley of corked fury and hunger to pleaseÃ¢â¬ (Krakauer 134). This shows that he hated society, yet he still cared about what people thought about him. When it comes to objectivity, Krakauer does not do a very good job; at many points he puts himself into the story, such as here: Ã¢â¬Å"As a youth, I am told, I was willful, intermittently reckless, moodyÃ¢â¬ (Krakauer 134). In this quote, he is also comparing himself to McCandless; this is furthermore showing that he is bias. He even has chapters about himself going though his own personal experiences, which is a lack of objectivity. Also, whenever he does talk about McCandless, he often inserts his own opinions into the story. From his opinions, it makes it very obvious that Krakauer admires almost everything that McCandless did during his odyssey. While Krakauer is obviously a strong supporter of McCandless and his great adventure, he also tells it accurately. Even though he makes attempts to justify the extremely stupid and reckless things that McCandless did on his journey, Krakauer still does in fact mention all of, or at least most of, the stupid and reckless things that Chris did on his journey. He includes the opinions of many of McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s critics, along with many of his supporters. Krakauer also includes many of McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s journal entries throughout the book, with some very long, and others as short as Ã¢â¬Å"MOOSE! Ã¢â¬ (Krakauer 166). McCandless wrote this when he shot a moose, which he later recalled as one of the worst tragedies of his life, because the moose quickly spoiled. While Krakauer does in fact make his story accounting the life of Chris McCandless accurate, he also certainly fails to make it impartial and unbiased. He seems to justify all of ChrisÃ¢â¬â¢s mistakes poorly conceived plans. The fact that Krakauer used this technique likely drove people away from the book; it is also likely that this pulled other people towards the book. Overall, this book is bias, yet it still has accurate and honest accounts. Throughout all of Into the Wild Krakauer seems to have no regards for the rules of journalistic integrity. As a result, the reader does not get a full, genuine portrayal of Chris McCandlessÃ¢â¬â¢s journey; they instead see McCandless through the eyes of Krakauer, which is overall just a reflection of Krakauer himself. As a result of KrakauerÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of ability to leave himself out of the story, along with his personal opinions of McCandless, the biography completely lacks the integrity of journalism. Into The Wild free essay sample Into the Wild tells so much about the person Chris Mishandles was, his story, and the tragedy of it all. But only a few chapters explain how he became the way he did and how It led him to do some of the things he did. He thought differently, worked at a deferent pace, and embraced life unlike any other. But, why? Many things In Chris life shaped him and made him the way he was before his tragic ending. Chris was always fearless. On page 109, It talks about how Chris father, Walt, took Chris on a three day hike, when he was eight, In the Shenandoah to climb Old Rag.Then Walt talks about how himself, his wife, kids from the other marriage, and Chris went to climb Long Peaks In Colorado. At 13,000 feet, Walt wanted to turn around and go back but Chris wanted to keep going. He wouldve risked the dangerous path. We will write a custom essay sample on Into The Wild or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Even later on, when he left to Alaska, he would take risks and do dangerous things. Walt had said, He didnt think the odds applied to him. He had no fears, and he did what he wanted. Chris never followed rules nor listened to anyone. He did his own thing at his own pace and the majority of the time, he was better at it than anyone else.But hed also et into trouble. Chris got an F in high school physics because he refused to write a paper in the format the teacher wanted. This same characteristic can be seen later on during his trip, when he worked at McDonalds, he would work at a slow pace all the time but hed always show up on time. He got into the habit of doing things how he wanted to do them when he was younger and thats how it always stayed. Chris friend, Giggler, explained how he would think a lot about heavy-duty stuff. It seems that Chris always wants to help and do things that are farther than his reach and bigger than him.His friends talk about how hed walk around Washington talking to prostitutes and homeless people. He once tried to convince his friends to help stop the racial oppression in South Africa. He was a dreamer, and that affected everything he did. In conclusion, throughout his whole life, Chris was always the same person. He was fearless and never followed rules. He followed his own path and did things at his own pace. He thought a lot about deep things, and he was a dreamer. Even later on, during his adventure across the country, we read about these same characteristics In the things he does and the people he talked to.He was an unique Individual. How it led him to do some of the things he did. He thought differently, worked at a different pace, and embraced life unlike any other. But, why? Many things in Chris Chris was always fearless. On page 109, it talks about how Chris father, Walt, took Chris on a three day hike, when he was eight, in the Shenandoah to climb Old Rag. Went to climb Long Peaks in Colorado. At 13,000 feet, Walt wanted to turn around and during his adventure across the country, we read about these same characteristics in the things he does and the people he talked to. He was an unique individual.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Cool Boy Essay Cool Boy Essay Assignment 1 International Interest Nowadays everything seemed relate to international aspects because the world is becoming as a global village. A lot of organization is also containing international components in order to have a higher quality organization. For example, one of my interests is basketball association. I like to play basketball and enjoy watching the players competed for their honor of the teams. An international organization called Peace Players International, which is helping to develop sports skills from different area`s children from age 10 to 14 is organized by South Africa, Northern Ireland, and Middle East. Peace Players International has four main objectives, bridge social divides, develop future leaders, educate children to lead healthy, constructive lives and build community involvement to ensure long-term sustainability. Peace Players International was founded in 2001 on the premise that Ã¢â¬Å"children who play together can learn to live together.Ã¢â¬ Peace Players International effectively blends together proven theories of social modeling, conflict resolution and public diplomacy to operate basketball and life-skills programs in historically divided regions that bring together thousands of children from different religious, racial, and cultural backgrounds. The programs attract children to participate in basketball and life-skills activities that enable them to learn leadership skills and how to live as friends and neighbors. A key component to Peace Players International's effectiveness is that the programs target children aged 10Ã¢â¬â14. These are the children old enough to pick up the basics of the sport, but young enough that many prejudices have not yet been cemented. Through the power of sport and education and the strategic integration of public diplomacy, Peace Players International is altering the pattern of preconceived prejudice and equipping children with the skills and education needed to address the serious social and health issues they face. Peace Players International established a program in Cyprus in October 2006 that is using the game of basketball to facilitate positive dialogue and interaction between Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot youth, with the ultimate goal being improved relations between the Greek and Turkish communities in Cyprus. The project is led by a group of 3 Peace Players International-Cyprus directors and 16 local coaches who direct activities that bring 10- to 12-year-old Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot youth together to play the sport in an inclusive, fun environment. The program was launched in partnership with the United Nations Development Programmed. Working with the UNDP and other local partners, Peace Players International-Cyprus has the following objectives: Peace Players International is bring hundreds of Turkish Cypri ot and Greek Cypriot children together to play basketball in a fun, inclusive environment and also train and employ local young audits from both communities to work together as coaches, leaders and role models In addition, Peace Players International develop links between Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot sports clubs and other community organizations and build community involvement and investment. Another organization that I am interesting is called National Basketball Association. The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America, and is widely considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world. It has thirty franchised member clubs, and is an active
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Gadgets in everyday life - Essay Example There is a general assumption that young people who are street-smart does not perform well in schools. There are a lot of reasons why schools and colleges often overlook the intellectual potential of the street smarts. In fact certain trait like this one is regarded as anti-intellectual. We always tend to associate life and our mind with academic concerns, and too narrowly and exclusively with subjects. The trouble with this assumption lies with the fact that no such connection has ever been verified with the subject and educational depth in the context so as to establish the weight of a discussion that is likely to generate. Real intellectuals, give a list of thoughtful questions relating to it, however lightweight a context seems to be. Media studies provide an overview of the morality and realism in context to television. According to Gladen, Ã¢â¬Å"This [the above thesis] individualistic way of looking at media effects isnÃ¢â¬â¢t entirely new, especially in an individualistic c ulture like the United States, where social scientists for years have been obsessed with trying to draw links between individual behavior and the mediaÃ¢â¬ (Gladen). Over the decades, there has been a greater demand for simple pleasures and business companies are more focused to delivering products through customization. For example: to make sense of a particular episode, the viewer has to keep up with the entertainment program, by making attentive and cognitive inferences. This is referred to as the Sleeper Curve Culture, which is getting more cognitive demanding shows. The Sleeper Curve is referred by the author as Ã¢â¬Å"single most important new force altering the mental development of young people today, and I believe it is largely a force for good: enhancing our cognitive faculties, not dumbing them down.Ã¢â¬ (Johnson). In The New York Times Magazine, Steven Johnson argued that there has been an apparent paradigm shifting in the way television shows are being aired. It h as become more complicated over the decade. Stuart Elliott a journalist with The New York Times has claimed just this year that "the characters on the Fox television series Family Guy . . . purÃ posely offen[d] just about every group of people you could name" (Peacocke). There is a general assumption that mass traditions pursues a path of a steady turn down towards lowest common denominator principles, only because Ã¢â¬Å"massesÃ¢â¬ want dumb-simple pleasures and big media companies try to give the masses what they want. The Sleeper Curve as explained in one of the essays in Ã¢â¬Å"They Say, I SayÃ¢â¬ is a form of most debased form of mass entertainment. Video games and aggressive television play series turn out to be a form of entertainment. The Sleeper Curve is a new vigor changing the mental progress of young people today. The good part of this aspect to be incorporated in our own lives, mean enhancing the thoughtfulness and cognitive behavior thinking. It is assumed that shows which promote acts of smoking and violence are bad for viewership, while those shows portraying the thunder against teen pregnancy or intolerance have a positive role in our society. Judging a show on just morality standards, the popular culture of over fifty years is a story of decline, the morality of those stories has grown darker. Ã¢â¬Å"Judged by that morality-play standard, the story of popular culture over the past 50 yearsÃ¢â¬âif not 500Ã¢â¬âis a story of decline: the morals of the stories have grown darker and more ambiguous, and the antiheroes have multiplied.Ã¢â¬ (Johnson). Televised Intelligence can be defined to be the aspect in which consideration of certain cognitive capabilities are placed on the viewers for further acceptance of a Ã¢â¬Å"
Monday, February 3, 2020
Being a business student in UCL - Personal Statement Example until it was not only my career aim, but had become a passion, and attaining a proper business degree is a drive towards attaining my passion Ã¢â¬â to run a successful business and make a difference with it. What interests me about business in general is the creative aspect of it, the competition it creates to strive to give the best of you and the sense of satisfaction when you see your business soar. To get an idea of exactly what kind of business I want to pursue, I left no opportunity unturned to get hands on experience and knowledge about varied types of businesses and their management. As it is difficult to do a full fledge job with the ongoing school work, I started working part time in many business related firms, to get real life experience of how businesses are run and managed. For this I worked as a full time trainee in a fashion business (TAA Albanus Limited, China) helped arrange a Fashion Show Exhibition for A/W 2011 and also worked in their sales, marketing, and data filing departments. Moreover, I started my own online retail business, worked day and night for it and earned around 34% profit through it, all this, without affecting my schoolwork. This experience not only gave a boost to my self-confidence, but also helped me manage unexpected problems and do SWOT analysis of different situations. I kept my options open and later did part time job as a waitress and cashier in different restaurants. Currently, I am working in a part time sales job in Hollister Co. All this experience, with more to come, when combined with a strong business degree would help me pursue the greater goal of running my own business. My enthusiasm to give my best in every field has helped me to be on the Honor Roll with distinction for three consecutive years of school, starting from grade 9. I also have the honor of scoring highest merit in my school in Mathematics 11 and Chemistry 11. I have actively participated in school clubs including the math club, biology club,
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Climate Change Impacts in Central Truro Background Central Truro is known as an urban region which gives individuals certain merchandise and administrations that they need, administrations incorporate private, business, modern, institutional and recreational area. It is likewise viewed as the main city in the country which was initially perceived as a significant exchange focus, because of expansion in mining commercial ventures it was then viewed as a stannary town. This core of services is located in the middle of western Cornwall which has a stream valley that goes through it. Each of the three channels (west, east and north) opens to the Truro River in south. This valley or rather a bowl shaped region encounters high precipitation notice and spring tides which makes it more prone to flooding (Unknown Author, 2013). Figure1: general overview of Central Truro, (Open Street view, 2014) Introduction As per IPCC (1992), climate change is characterized as a long term interchange that is measurably diverse in either the mean states of climate or its variability for an expanded period which can be decades or more. Climate change may be a direct result of trademark inward approaches or outside forcing, or to continuing on anthropogenic changes in the bit of the atmosphere or in land use. Climate change has indirect effect to flooding; an increment in greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere has brought about changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation pattern (Titus and Barth, unknown year). Consequently bringing about rise in ocean surface temperatures which thus brings about overwhelming rainfalls in light of hydrological cycle changes an alternate result is rise in ocean level because of expanding water particles (Titus and Barth, unknown year). 1. Impacts of flooding 1.1. The Impacts of flooding on the Human environment. Regions that are generally known for financial exercises are prone to be more vulnerable against flooding. To gauge the effect of flooding in a range, population affected, exercises upset, degree of flooding and intensity are utilized. Whats more, flooding has an immediate and indirect effect to human environment (Barth, et al., unknown year). The human environment gets incredibly affected by overwhelming precipitation in the internal city. During heavy rainfall events, the two streams, River Allen and River Kenwyn, which goes through the city, may become more turbulent and as the water move in the channel, it may undercut their banks bringing about more erosion in the city (Barth, et al., unknown year). The greater part of this sediment gets kept in the stream mouth where the two streams meet the Truro River (Unknown Author, 2013). As an outcome, buildings based on the surge plane may fall and numerous individuals may lose their lives if not cleared. Life forms that rely on upon the Truro River for their survival may be compelled to move to different places as the Salinity of the water increment due to rise in ocean level (Titus and Barth, unknown year). The salty water may be pushed further upstream as it advances to the groundwater framework. This change will thusly influence people as the vast majority of them rely on upon groundwater as a source of clean water. The water will get to be undrinkable and a massive measure of money will be needed for desalination (FEMA, 1991). The centre of the city is viewed as a noteworthy vocation focus and is likewise a neighbourhood business sector serving a more prominent number of the city occupants (Barth, et al., unknown year). A flooding event may see the majority of the city centreÃ¢â¬â¢s monetary exercises grinding to a standstill, which might, thus, bring about the separation and brokenness of the people groups ordinary normal for a developed time of time even way after the floodwater has settled (Unknown Author, 2013). Flooding may inhibit advancement and monetary development in the Central Truro district as well as the whole Cornwall country (Unknown Author, 2013). Interests in framework and a wide range of improvement exercises in the central parts of Truro may injure their economy because of the high cost of mitigation and recovery (FEMA, 1991). Floodwater ordinarily harm framework and may additionally cause long term effects, for example, the disturbance of water supply benefits, power, education facilities and transport (Lieske, 2011). Figure 2: Flooding impacts in the city centre (The guardian, 2010). According to FEMA (1991), Central Truro inhabitants may encounter numerous psychological well-beings unsettling not long after a flooding occasion. Anxiety, post-traumatic stress issue and Depression are a portion of the mental disturbances that will affect the people. These may reduce the productivity of the working class and thus affect the economy (Titus, et al., 1987). 1.2. The Impacts of flooding on the physical environment. Administrations such as the Cornwall country committee, Carrick area board, the Royal Cornwall hospital facility and the nation court are all clustered in the city centre (Titus and Barth, unknown year). The city is significantly prejudiced during a flooding event and along the core of the city; loss of business will be felt the most as correspondence connections and base, for example, roads, power stations and bridges will be extremely damaged, refer to figure 3. Figure 3: road destruction due to flooding, image adapted from (ctv news Atlantic, 2012) Flash floods are responsible of an extensive variety of contamination and pollution in beachfront regions (Barth, et al., unknown year). Ranges like Truro which are completely encompassed by water-both the ocean and the streams are incredibly influenced by water contamination. As the focal parts of the city surge, including concoction shops can see most parts of the city polluted as harmful material (paint, fuel and pesticides, etc) are discharged into nature. Sewage channels are frequently broken during a flood (Barth, et al., unknown year).Raw sewage frequently gets distributed with the floodwater. Some may even get into individuals homes, which is extremely appalling and exceptionally hard to clean. The raw sewage may contaminate the urban communities drinking water framework excessively which leads to the widespread of waterborne sicknesses, for example, cholera (Unknown Author, 2013). As the polluted water advance to the closest waterway lastly to the sea, biological systems wil l be lost (Barth, et al., unknown year). Figure 4: Residents mop up after a flood (Mail Online, 2010) 2. Vulnerability and Resilience 2.1. The city centreÃ¢â¬â¢s vulnerability to floods The terrains of the focal city are significantly inclined bringing about an assortment of drainage issues. Within the central area, granite rock paving have been set up since the improvement of the town (FEMA, 1991).This clearing framework keeps water from saturating the ground during a flood. Rather, enormous amounts of water from the inner city area advance to the two streams, River Allen and River Kenwyn which runs through the city. An increment in surface spill over and waterway release makes the internal city (shopping centre) and the auto parking areas nearby the stream more vulnerable to a flooding occasion (Lieske, 2011). Figure 5: Shops forced to close and clean up after a flood hit Central Truro (West Briton, 2013) A rise in ocean level will see regions like the Heaven house (next to the Truro River), Truro collage and the Morlaix Avenue under floodwater. Amid a storm surge, the Morlaix Avenue Street may be devastated and numerous administrations that use that course to get into the city may be ceased (Unknown Author, 2013).Children are said to be more vulnerable against psychological well-being unsettling influences during an extreme weather event such as flooding. As said prior, disturbances, for example, Anxiety and Depression may alert as one loss a relative in an extremely unbearable manner (Titus, et al., 1987). The number of individuals in the downtown area is higher than the encompassing regions. These variables make the individuals more vulnerable against flooding and to be influenced by a wide range of infections (Barth, et al., unknown year). Contamination of drinking water and nourishment may see many individuals debilitated and even dead. Tainted water may advance to nourishment shops and make the sustenance uneatable. If consumed, the sustenance may cause gastrointestinal sickness from microbes and chemicals that are dangerous to human health (Unknown Author, 2013).Central Truro is well known for its history and amazing tourism sites and shopping centre. This makes it more vulnerable to flooding and the fishing industry is more vulnerable to a rise in sea level (Titus and Barth, unknown year). 3. Adaptions to future flood risk and inundation. 3.1. Potential adaptions of the human environment to future flood risk and inundation. Flood reaction measures need to be actualized. These measures incorporate how communities and committees react to a flood (Unknown Author, 2013). Flood warning frameworks, public awareness programmes and community response plans need to be put in place so that in an occasion of flooding, the inhabitants that live in the central parts of the city that is prone to be affected may have enough time to clear into raised regions (FEMA, 1991). The change of property may help lessen the vulnerability of the malls in Truro (Unknown Author, 2013).Since the majority of Truros foundation was assembled utilizing old material, supplanting/ covering the old material with flood resistant material, raising flood statures, utilizing more versatile building plans and restraining new improvement in surge hazard territories will expand the resilience of the base to flooding (Lieske, 2011). 3.2. Potential adaptions of the physical environment to future surge danger and inundation. Since the majority of Central Truros structures are near to the streams, they get to be more inclined to flooding. Ocean dividers, filling and the developments of levees is a portion of the degree that could be changed to abstain from flooding in the internal city (Lieske, 2011). The regulation of drainage frameworks may help Central Truro to end up less affected by floods (Unknown Author, 2013). Different measures that can be taken would be good planning that can help reduce the danger. Examples may be the development of flood resistant foundation and services (Unknown Author, 2013). Utilizing exceptionally safe channels for the sewage framework and the water supply frameworks may help decreases instances of water-borne infection during a flooding event (Lieske, 2011).
Saturday, January 18, 2020
It may seem difficult for some to see just how teaching can become an ultimate job for myself, let alone anyone for that matter. It is easy to see why certain people have this kind of opinion of this profession. For one, depending on the career path and position, the salary is not very enticing in proportion to the work that is required. It is a thankless job at times and requires a lot of patience. Yet there are certain intangibles that make teaching the ultimate profession for me. The simple fact that as a teacher I will have the opportunity to get in touch with and shape the mind of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth to allow them to see the wonderful opportunities for them in this world is worth more than any remuneration that the job can provide. The satisfaction from being able to help young children fulfill their dreams and realize their full potential is something that cannot be measured by dollars and cents. This is where my educational philosophy comes from. I have always believed that there is no other better way to learn than by teaching. Many people say that you lean best by studying yet I disagree and say that one always learns best when teaching. Education is a two way street. The student learns from the teacher and the teacher learns about the student and more about life. Often times, the problem is that there is a communication barrier that exists between students and teachers. This makes it more difficult to impart anything upon the student because they are not as receptive. Another aspect that makes it more challenging arises from the fact that the learning curve that the teacher adopts may not necessarily be the one best suited for the student. This is often the case when there is no communication between the student and the teacher as caused by this carrier. For this reason, I believe that a lot of the teaching and learning must be accompanied with a certain level of respect in order to allow free intercourse of ideas that develop the learning. This approach, I believe, makes the teaching environment more productive as it cultivates respect for the teacher and the student. There is no greater joy in life than knowing as a teacher that you have done something to change the life of another. The development of the child is paramount in education. This development, however, is not only with regard to certain matters or fields of study but is more holistic in the sense that it challenges the child to not be content with what was learned but instead yearn for more. In child development, the teacher must always strive to make the child want to learn more. It is this type of preparation that aids in the development of the child. The role of teachers then becomes important in the context of child development because teachers need to understand what they are supposed to do. Many people have the mistaken impression that as teachers their role is to simply provide the student with information. The problem with this is that it imparts a static education. In order to become more effective as a teacher, one must realize that the role of the teacher is not to teach everything to the child but to equip the child to be able to learn more on his own. Teachers are guides. Teachers are not encyclopedias that just dispense any information at hand. Teachers should know that their role is to inspire in the child the desire to pursue higher learning. Teaching is a noble profession. In the hands of the teachers are entrusted the future of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth. This important position in society is one that must not be taken lightly and must be revered. Yet in order for this to happen, a teacher must realize the importance of his or her job and the responsibilities that accompany such a privileged and indispensable role in society. To lead the children on that first step to a higher education is one of the greatest accomplishments that a teacher can hope to do.
Friday, January 10, 2020
WHAT IS RE-POSITIONING? A company or product is new and people already formed judgments about it. In other word, the company or product already has an image either good or bad or in between. Many companies are not aware of their exact image but it is important if that image can be identified. If a company does not know where it is now, then that product or company unlikely to get to where it wants to go. RE-POSITIONING BRANDS As markets and customer needs evolve; brands can lose customers to new competitors.In addition, brands can become diluted as product or service offerings become commodities. When a brand loses meaning and relevance to target customer, a new brand promise should be defined so the brand can be repositioned. TYPES OF BRAND RE-POSITIONING Brand Re-positioning Brand re-positioning is changing the positioning of a brand. A particular positioning statement may not work with a brand. Brand re-positioning is undertaken in order to increase a brand competitive position an d therefore increase sales volume by seizing market share from rival products.When re-positioning companies can change aspects of the product, change the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s target market or both. There are four types of re-positioning options for develop a new product in market. I. Image Re-positioning This option takes when both the product and the target market remain unchanged. The aim is to change the image of the product in its current target market. For example product Adidas were seen as reliable but dull in early 1990s. The company created an image of Ã¢â¬Ëstreet credibilityÃ¢â¬â¢ in an attempt to reposition the brand to appeal to the customer in the sports shoe market.During the 1990s, Tango the Britvic soft drink has been transformed from a minor UK brand into a brand showing dynamic growth. This has been achieved by creating an anarchic image for the products through a major promotional re launch that was aimed to appeal to consumers in the critical 16-24 age of group. II . Market Re-positioning The product remains unchanged but the product repositioned to appeal to a new market segment. For example, Lucozade is a brand of carbonated glucose drink was originally targeted as a product for individuals suffering from illness, particularly children.Now it has been repositioned as an isotonic drink aimed at young adults undertaking sporting activities. III. Product Re-positioning Product re-positioning is materially changed but is still aimed to appeal to the existing target market. Product positioning is closely related to market segment focus. Product positioning involves creating a unique, consistent, and recognized customer perception about a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s offering and image. A product or service may be positioned on the basis of an attitude or benefit, use or application, user, class, price, or level of quality.It targets a product for specific market segments and product needs at specific prices. The same product can be positioned in many different ways. IV. Total Re-positioning This option involves both a change of target market and accompanying product modifications. For example, Skoda has managed under VolkswagenÃ¢â¬â¢s ownership to reposition itself totally. The product quality and design has changed significantly and the brand now has credibility with new, more affluent consumers. This has also allowed the brand to expand its sales outside its Eastern European heartland.REASONS TO CONSIDER BRAND RE-POSITIONING 1. The brand has a negative image This can easily happen and often is not the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s fault. Damage can be done by maverick individuals as in the notorious cases of poisoning of the products such as Tylenol and Perrier. It can also be an effect of government policy. For example, if a company builds a highway and forecasts year ahead the toll charges for the government, the public may know nothing about any intended road price increases until the government announces them at a much later date.This announce ment may be handled badly by the government, perhaps being made during recessionary times when disposable income is reduced. Although it is not within the control of the company collecting the toll, it still reflects badly on the company. Public relation is usually the fire-fighting answer, but forward looking companies use advertising and public relation strategically to think ahead about potential problems. This is sometimes scenario planning or issues management. The company looks ahead for a certain length of time.It can be months with fast moving consumer goods or a couple of decades with conglomerates. An example of how a company thought about its brand image in this way is seen in Telekom MalaysiaÃ¢â¬â¢s sponsorship of the 1998 Malaysian Everest climb. Many things could have happened including the injury and death of the climbers. But a comprehensive set of guidelines was prepared for staff covering responses to possible questions the company would be asked in both positive and negative scenarios. On the other hand Coca-Cola did not seem to react quickly enough when the European scare surfaced in mid-1999.They suggesting that it might not have planned what to say in such unlikely circumstances and now it has a major re-positioning job to do. 2. The brand has a blurred or fuzzy image When this happen, people do not feel strongly about image one way or the other way or have mixed perceptions about it. This is quite likely to happen when a brand has not been positioned properly. Perceptual mapping would probably reveal that the brand is very close to other brands in terms of customer preferences and has little to differentiate it.A re-positioning exercise would need to be carried out to get the brand into a space away from the other brands. This may involve changes to product or packaging. 3. Competition has moved close or taken over brand position This is constant threat facing any successful brand because everyone wants to emulate success. It sometimes takes companies by surprise as Japan brand Lexus did to BMW in the U. Ss this is a constant hazard in the consumer goods category. Companies have to be prepared to constantly innovate with existing products and bring out new products to surround the category space.FedEx, one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading courier companies upon finding out that all other Asian courier companies had positioned themselves around the benefit of speed as it had done moved away with a very large advertising campaign and suggesting that whatever the adverse circumstances, FedEx would deliver. It has not lost the speed benefit because this product related. It has instead added a dimension of corporate personality to strengthen overall company image hence differentiating it from the rest of the crowd. 4. The company embarks on new strategic directionWhen a company embarks on a new strategic direction move into a new industry or introduces a brand that is remote from the core business, brands with an already powerful image faces less of a problem this might bring. However, weak brands will find it essential to reposition it to convince the target audience of its credibility. For example, Coca-Cola feels confident enough to bring out its own brand of clothing. There are limits to brand extensions. If the brand name is not too elastic, a totally new brand name may be necessary. 5. The company introduces new brand personalityWhen a company introduces new brand values or personality characteristics it needs to undertake re-positioning. Privatization and deregulation have forced many government institutions to change their practices, values and their cultures. This is a significant challenge as consumer perceptions are deeply entrenched and re-positioning requires considerable persistence repetition backed up by a totally different brand culture and customer experience. Similarly, re-packaging a brand requires re-positioning. 6. The company addresses a new target audienceMoving to a new mar ket segment in addition to the existing ones is always tempting for the brand development. The danger lies in alienating the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s existing customer base. Example presented by Toyota, which said it is considering joining the Formula One racing by 2003. It is trying to revitalize its image to appeal more to the youth, a segment that tends to buy more innovative products such as those produced by Honda. By joining Formula One it hopes to send a message to young people about the fun of driving and position Toyota as technically up to date. 7. The sales are declining.This is the basic reason why Marlboro considered re-positioning in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. If the absolute sales start to drop, you need to take a step back and figure out the cause. If you think that you are offering your service or goods at its best, but it still does not continue to attract customers, it could be that your brand needs to be refreshed, if not represented differently. 8. New competitors have a better v alue proposition. In that case, rest assured that your initial position will be destabilized. If customers see that other brands offer better than yours, they tend to shift.Hence, company option is to either step up or get left behind. 9. Customers think that your brand is outdated and not established. Being an older brand does not necessarily put you at a higher position. Customers may see your brand as outdated or irrelevant. What you need to work on is how you can really Ã¢â¬ËestablishÃ¢â¬â¢ your brand. You know your brand is established when customers trust and go back to it again and again. In other words, established brand produces loyal customers. 10. Your products and services have evolved drastically. Over time, companies change and expand.You may have added new products, refined old ones, or expanded the line. This would help you stay relevant and fresh. However, if you have changed your products or offerings over a long stretch of time, chances are, the branding strat egy that you started with does not reflect the brand anymore. It might be out of sync already. You may need to change it to mirror what the brand stand for now. HOW TO REPOSITION BRAND FOR HIGHER MEANING? To be successful at re-positioning your brand, you have to create higher meaning and aim higher. Aiming higher requires outward thinking and learning from the marketplace.Some companies have been engaged with a variety of consumer products brands whose managers are seeking new opportunities to grow their brandÃ¢â¬â¢s value. In all these engagements, I have noticed a common thread among all of them which was consumers no longer care about them because they have lost their compelling meaning in the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Once a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind is made up about a brand, itÃ¢â¬â¢s next to impossible to change it. The decisions facing brand managers and marketing executives regarding how they deal with our ever-evolving market landscape usually comes down to three options: i . ontinue to invest in the existing brand meaning ii. create a sub-brand iii. invent a completely new brand All of these options have advantages and disadvantages, more so if the brand is also facing dramatic challenges in distribution. The driver underpinning all these options is change. Brands are dynamic. They have their cycles and they run their course. What is hard for managers to grasp is when to move on. This is particularly true if the brand was once a leader. Market success always creates size, power and a false sense of security.Over time, this creates an unrealistic view of the external reality, and a lack of urgency to correct course in maintaining relevancy among consumers. Brand managers naturally become inwardly focused and they tend to miss seeing new opportunities or competitive threats. Complacency becomes the norm and the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s compelling meaning in the minds of consumers gets blurred and sales drop. If the companies are faced with reinventing brand, the problem that they faced most likely is obvious. Somehow many people believe a good idea has to be clever, mysterious or layered in complexity. The best ideas for re-positioning brands are simple.If the core idea behind the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning is not simple and obvious, it would not stand a chance in the over-crowded slush pile of a marketplace in which the brand must reside. Simple ideas are self-evident, which is why they work so well. Positioning is the art of sacrifice. A brand can only stand for one compelling, radical differentiating selling idea. The trouble with simple ideas is they have no appeal to the imagination and are easily over-looked. We are naturally drawn to the more clever and ingenious ideas. Resist this temptation. The company needs to aim higher thinking toward the simple, obvious differentiating idea hat elevates the brand to a new meaning people really care about. RE-POSITIONING STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE It is high time we re-examine the way re-positioning of brand is done in this ever changing market place. Uncertainty and trends have placed companies in a race against time. Gone are the days when work for every segment of consumers like a charm. The life and soul of the market place today is focusing and engaging specific target market. Major paradigm of strategic re-positioning is now introduction of small scale change with budget.Value based system is the money spinner that competitors have been using to bring companies down. Strategic re-positioning and exploitation of brand advantage is the only cash cow that can be used to counter them. The re-positioning strategy below will keep the company aware from the failure. 1. Reposition brand internally. Internal brand building is an emerging trend in marketing that is used to solidify the position of a brand in an organization. Brand based internal communication will communicate new strategic position of a brand to employees of an organization.Major home improvement companies like Home Depot, and Lowes are example of companies with strong internal communication. Engagement will foster strategic intent of re-positioning in to the training experience and job activities of employee. Organization alliance with brand re-positioning activities will enable company to achieve increased customer referral expanded sale portfolio, and customer service efficiency. 2. Carry out consumer analysis The essence of carrying out consumer analysis is to identify prospects, customers and target group in order to position brand correctly.Success will go an extra mile if new product development can focus consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s need and wants. New brand profile should correlate with consumer behavior and value. New product development manager have to make sure that they meet and exceed consumer expectation in order to make them loyal to brand. And lastly company should engage brand in the mind of consumers consistently in order to create a lasting emotional affinity. 3. C ompetitive analysis Competitive analysis is the assessment of the strength and weakness of your rival. Company does not underestimate the power of their competitors.Emergence of technologies has made it easy for them to gain insight in to the future before anyone does. New product development should create an uncontested market space by making sure their marketing mix is innovative in nature. They can differentiate the position of their brand by instilling a distinct feature in price, promotion, distribution and the product itself. 4. Fine tune to advertising strategy Companies like Verizon, gap, apple, Microsoft and MacDonald have fine-tuned their advertising strategy to Ã¢â¬Å"consumer needsÃ¢â¬ tactics. Appealing message will create brand awareness and increased sales to them.By using a medium that will clearly communicate new brand position and features to existing customers and prospects. They have to employ message that has specific objective in order to add value, success, quality, excitement, substance, and equity to the positioning of their brand. Besides that, advertising objectives should be derived assessment of market situation, price position, competition, and channel of distribution. 5. Create good relationship with trade partner and channel members Trade partner and channel members are people that ensures product or brand gets to the hands of final consumers.Intermediaries have very strong ties to brands. Good strategic partnership and relationship with channel members are very important in ensuring that new brand position is communicated to consumers. They can also supply sales force and marketing communications necessary persuade consumers to go beyond buying a product. Companies like Dell Computer, FedEx, and Charles Schwab have a very great system that have enabled them achieve a very powerful competitive advantage. 6. Reassess It is always good to carry out assessment of brand position continuously to ensure relevance in the market.This strategy will eliminate risk and problem from piling up. It is done by carrying out internal and external analysis of brand rating within employees, customers and prospect. The result of the analysis will enable them to know the strength and weakness of brand position. Furthermore, data collected will enable you map out informed strategy to reposition their brand all over again. PROFITABLE WAYS TO REPOSITION A BRAND The reason is because brand re-positioning strategy is applicable to wide range of real business problems and marketing issues.Brand re-positioning is the only effective strategy that can generate feasible solution to problems based on current needs of the market. Therefore, it is imperative organizations understand specific ways to reposition a brand. Below are illustrations of ways to reposition a product or services. i. To make brand relevant One way to reposition a product or service in the mind of target market is to make it relevance. Brand relevance can be define d as the alignment of brandÃ¢â¬â¢s identity, attribute and personality with the needs of target group.The reason behind making brand relevant constantly is because of changing needs of the society and profusion of alternatives. Brand relevance entails keeping brand current and significant in the mind of target group. It also encompass ensuring that brand resonate and connect to consumers emotionally. ii. To enhance brand identity Another way to reposition a brand is to enhance its identity in the market place. Brand identity is the visible element of a brand such as colors, logo, design, symbol and name that distinguishes a product or services in the mind of consumer.Identity enhancement is done especially if there is no consistency between brand interfaces and consumers. Redefinition of identity is also done when two or more company is merging together. Brand identity is strategic or substance oriented in nature. Brand identity begins with analysis of marketing environment and en ds with using research data to create relevant brand portfolio. iii. To enhance brand personality Organizations reposition brand personality especially when they need to solidify customer loyalty and engagement.According to David Aaker, author of the book Ã¢â¬Å"Building strong brandÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"brand personality can also be defined as the set of human characteristics associated with a given brandÃ¢â¬ . It is also the personification of intangible and tangible traits of a brand. Brand personality projects beliefs and core value of product or services. It is a framework that creates passion and affinity for consumers. Types of brand personalities include trustworthiness, sincerity, strong, reliable, consistency, sophistication, and emotional. iv. To enhance brand experienceAnother way to reposition a brand is to enhance consumers experience in order to gain long term competitive advantage. Brand experience encompasses aligning product or services to end-user mood, needs, desires, and behavior. It also involves using stimuli to invoke feelings, sensation and responses. A memorable and unforgettable experience is created by being insightful, remarkable, valuable, dynamic, relevance and accessible enough to unravel gaps and deliver satisfaction incessantly. CustomerÃ¢â¬â¢s physical & emotional expectations are enhanced by creating great experience at all faucet of interaction. . To enhance brand essence Periodically, organizations enhance the essence of their brand by associating brand with meaningful and relevant substance. Brand essence is a pathway for adding value and equity to a product or services continuously. The concept of brand essences is also defined as a phrase or statement that contains emotional connection or impression about product or services experience. It is the DNA or core characteristic that distinguishes a brand from other alternatives. Illustrations of traits associated with brand essence include unique, relevance, scalable, and susta inable. i. To enhance brand image/reputation Another Way to reposition the image of a brand is through its appeal, fame, and value. Business dictionary defines brand image as the Ã¢â¬Å"impression in the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind of a brand total personalityÃ¢â¬ . Brand image can be also defined as what a brand stand for or set of specific belief about brand in the mind of consumers. It deals with readjusting the perception of consumers on brand. It is tactical or appearance oriented in nature. Various ways to enhance brand image is through advertising, promotion, word of mouth, customer service and other touch points. ii. To adjust brand association Re-positioning of brand association is done by organizations to increase product or service appeal to core target group. Business dictionary defined brand association as the Ã¢â¬Å"extent to which a particular brand calls to mind the attribute of a general product categoryÃ¢â¬ . It can also be defined as the meaning, attributes, image associated with a brand in the mind of consumers. Associating brand with enchanting features can solidify loyalty and turn consumers to evangelist or advocates.Various brand association include customers contact, advertisements, character, word of mouth, celebrity, category, geography, end-users, slogan, intangibles, products, extensions, and displays. viii. To emphasize on brand attribute Sporadically, factors like unstable market, short product life cycle, technological advancement, and alternative can make the attribute of a product or services irrelevant. Re-positioning of brand attribute is done by emphasizing on attribute that matter most to consumers or target group. Brand Attributes is defined as the properties or characteristics of a product or services.It can also be defined as the emotional as well as functional association consumers confer to a brand. Types of attribute include cost, friendly, authentic, innovative, prestige, and reliability. ix. Brand differentiation Or ganization indulges in differentiation strategy when they need to establish a strong identity in the mind of consumers. Business dictionary defined brand differentiation as the Ã¢â¬Å"result of effort to make a product or service stand out as a provider of unique value to customers in comparisons with its competitorsÃ¢â¬ .Chosen point of differentiation need to be significant to target market, not used by competitors and supported by organizational resources. Types of differentiation include components, performance, experience, market leader, convenient, innovation, pioneer, essential, expertise, and responsiveness. WHY BRAND RE-POSITIONING COULD BE THE BEST SOLUTION THROUGH WEBSITE? When you have been working on a brand for a long time, it can be depressing to find out that it is not having the positive effect that you hoped.Examining the brand equity for the website can sometimes reveal that there is virtually no difference between marketing your company with the brand, and prom oting it without. This usually means that your current brand is missing the mark, and you are just not connecting with your customers. In order to create a better equity, and retain more customers while bringing in new traffic, you should seriously consider brand re-positioning for your website. Re-positioning a brand means changing the angle or design of your current brand marketing campaign, or even simply discarding your brand and starting again.On a website, which needs to be constantly changing in order to keep up with modern trends, it can actually be a good idea to reposition your brand every so often. This keeps the website fresh for your clients, and can also attract and retain customers who would not be otherwise connected, while also allowing you to fine-tweak the Brand Promise or other elements which affect the levels of brand equity. There are a number of reasons why you should consider brand re-positioning for your website. If you are just not attracting the sales that you had at the beginning, then changing the brand can bring back former customers.You would also need to focus upon promoting different elements of your products or services to keep the interest, but this can be a positive side effect of brand re-positioning. Another reason may be that brand you have chosen does not really match your website, and you are therefore losing customers. For example if you are promoting a brand of shoes with puppies and kittens on, then you would not want a brand image that more resembles a heavy metal poster. Your customers base their opinions of your values upon your branding, so the item and the brand need to be a close, if not completely perfect, match.A brand which clashes with your website or the item or service offered for sale simply has to go, and changing the logo, colors and appearance of your brand can be the incentive that some websites need to completely overhaul the way that they operate which was by leading to new initiatives that generat e more income for the owners. Brand re-positioning can also be a step designed to help the owner of the website with brand management, keeping the brand to a set design, and making it clearly different from other types of brand which are very similar to your own.If a rival company has put out a product with a virtually identical brand to your own, then you can cut down their stealing of your clients by changing the appearance of your brand. This type of brand re-positioning can also ensure that you keep up-to-date with your opposition, and donÃ¢â¬â¢t become the traditional website, as this can put off some buyers. There are also several different types of effects which can result from brand re-positioning. For example, you may find that changing the look and feel of your brand can make your company more relevant to the customer.If you offer a service, then you may find that your regular customers increase their levels of use, because re-positioning the brand has opened up potentia l uses that the customer had not previously thought of. It may also serve to make the customer take your product more seriously. Sometimes when a website has been used for a long while, clients can feel a bit bored about your site, and re-positioning can make them think again about your products. Re-positioning can also ensure that your brand keeps up with changing market conditions that would otherwise have resulted in a drop in sales.By constantly re-positioning the brand in the market, websites can keep themselves one step ahead of the competition, and keep up with current trends. Making sure that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t fall behind ensures that you retain customers and keep bringing in new ones. In the more modern era of the social network site, companies also rebrand in response to changing customer demands. Some websites may need re-positioning in order to keep the interest of Ã¢â¬ËfollowersÃ¢â¬â¢, because it gives them something to notify their fans about, and so keep the compan y in the userÃ¢â¬â¢s memory.Others may hear direct complaints about their current brand, and this can lead them to reposition their brand in the market, hoping to ease customer dissatisfaction with a particular part of the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s products. Although you may not have experienced any opposition as yet, re-positioning is a good idea even for a very small company with social networking contacts, and in order to ensure that effective branding is installed, working with a company such as www. expertsbranding. com can ensure that you keep your brand contemporary and consistent even after it has been repositioned.SUCCESSFUL BRAND RE-POSITIONING There are three key factors in successfully planning for and delivering on brand positioning. There are of course many examples of this not going to plan and in fact companies having to back-track on their new promise to a more pragmatic place. The three components to success or consideration on this topic to be: i. Planning new positioning so that it fits within the existing reference points of the target market. Some company much like the creation of social media personas and communities and not trying to create a new identity or personality or place for the brand.That is too far away from the existing perception of that brand in its category and market position. ii. Ensuring that the audience will grant you permission to re-position. This stage essentially encourages the brand to again consider current customer sentiment. The question is they looking for the brand to evolve and change, or are they comfortable with where it is or not even aware of the current positioning. Essentially efforts are wasted if the audience are not likely or be receptive. iii.Finally, and I think critically, the last component is ensuring the organization delivers on the new brand promise. This seems logical, but the best examples of brand re-positioning are where brands start transforming internally and fundamentally Ã¢â¬â brand of cou rse needs to behave like it wants to be seen. No one likes a big talker with no follow through. EXAMPLES OF RE-POSITIONING BRAND SUNKIST In this digital age where music and the virtual world dominate most of the younger generation's daily lives, marketers have to change and adapt their strategies to reach their target market.Recently, the American soda brand Sunkist has initiated a brand re-positioning. They are now aimed at trend savvy teens and young adults. Sunkist's brand manager said that they just can't rely on traditional marketing. The brand's mother company, the Dr Pepper Snapple Group, is now utilizing YouTube, MySpace and Facebook platforms to promote their products. The company has also partnered with MySpace to promote its project. Sunkist has also created four new videos featuring young break dancers out at night.Many brands and companies are now using digital communication mediums and social media tools for a more relevant communication strategy that is in line with t heir target marketsÃ¢â¬â¢ interests and ways of life such as LG, Unilever, and Nutella. In an era when people are switching from television to computers and mobile phones, companies cannot only use traditional advertisement channels and must find new ways to reach their customers. Today, the proliferation of online platforms seems to be a great opportunity for marketers to enter this new age of communication.There is no doubt that SunkistÃ¢â¬â¢s new strategy will help the brand increase its global awareness and successfully reach their consumers. Today, the young generation is more health conscious and probably less willing to buy drinks containing huge amounts of sugar. Sunkist did their market research before launching the new campaign to ensure their brand re-positioning is a success. JOHNSON AND JOHNSON Liquid petroleum is low-value, mass-produced and has a wide variety of uses; there is huge potential for mass marketing.The market name for this substance has been long known as Mineral Oil, used primarily for health and medical uses. But US pharmaceutical and fast-moving-consumer-goods manufacturer Johnson and Johnson bridged the gap between the initial R&D and the market-ready innovation by defining a baby-care niche: JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Baby Oil was born. This extended their Ã¢â¬ËbabyÃ¢â¬â¢ product range, which later also included Ã¢â¬ËNo more tears shampooÃ¢â¬â¢. These products demonstrate the benefits and drawbacks of a Ã¢â¬ËFocusÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy as the consequential brand re-positioning shows, operating in a niche has its limitations.The branding of their baby oil and shampoo has highly effective in defining their niche: happy babies in above-the-line advertising, pink packaging and a trusted producer sends out all the right connotations; mothers know that these products will never harm their babies. As a result of this, Johnson and Johnson can differentiate themselves from the competition by which is the essence of what a brand should aim to do that seduces a female-orientated target market to ignore generic competitors. This may have been key to uccess as Micheal PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces demonstrates, Johnson and Johnson has less power than their customers, the supermarkets, who are also trying to sell their own-brand alternatives. Hence, branding to create a niche is a competition-driven objective. However, while it was a competitive strategy, nowadays the products are marketed to a wider, mass market and the Ã¢â¬ËbabyÃ¢â¬â¢ niche, which limited sales, has been ditched to pursue a new sales growth aim. This is essentially re-positioning a brand.The baby oil and shampoo, it is argued, if soft and gentle enough even for babies, then surely new consumers can be attracted to use the product, which mirrors a form of market development. Predictably, more customers equates to more sales and therefore greater revenue; also, by increasing demand Johnson and Johnson can benefit from internal economies of scale to red uce average unit costs, which boosts profit margins. But this is easier said than done: very good marketing was needed to successful reposition their products.Ironically, therefore, the secret behind successful brand re-positioning is not to change the branding to match the new consumer, but change the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived Ã¢â¬ËneedsÃ¢â¬â¢ to match the brand. REFFERENCES Brandsource. (2009, June 8). Retrieved 4 3, 2012, from Sunkist Brand Re-positioning: http://www. labbrand. com/brand-source/sunkist-brand-re-positioning Johnson and Johnson Ã¢â¬â Brand Re-positioning. (2010, August 4). Retrieved April 3, 2012, from Johnson and Johnson Ã¢â¬â Brand Re-positioning: http://manifestedmarketing. com/tag/johnson-and-johnson/ Derrick, E. (2011, September 9). The Blake Project.Retrieved April 3, 2012, from Branding Strategy: http://www. brandingstrategyinsider. com/2011/09/how-to-reposition-your-brand-for-higher-meaning. html Levey, C. (n. d. ). Re-positioning:Marketing Stra tegies. I. T . Partners. Lyle, S. (2011, June 13). The Academy of Business Strategy. Retrieved April 3, 2012, from http://theacademyofbusinessstrategy-brandre-positioning. com/ McKinsey & Company. (2001). Successful Brand Re-positioning. Marketing Practice. Norlander, T. , & Unander-Scharin, M. (2007). Re-positioning- A Brand Personality. Bachelor Thesis, 139. Ryken, C. (2011,